A 67-year-old Dutch woman presented with neurological symptoms of several months duration. MRI scans of the brain showed intracerebral lesions. Brain biopsy revealed granulomatous inflammation and remnants of worm eggs. Eggs of Schistosoma mansoni were found in the stools and serological tests were positive for Schistosoma. From additional history taking it became clear that the patient contracted schistosomiasis when visiting Brazil several years before. She was treated with praziquantel and corticosteroids. Neuroschistosomiasis is a rare but severe complication of Schistosoma infection. This diagnosis should be considered in patients that travelled to or originate from endemic schistosomiasis areas.