Conflict of interest: none declared. Financial support: none declared.
Due to high vaccination coverage, measles and rubella (German measles) are now rarely seen in the Netherlands, which makes recognition of these diseases difficult.
Measles can also occur in people who have been immunized, as a result of vaccination failure.
Swift recognition of measles and rubella is necessary in order to manage them adequately and to prevent spreading of the disease.
Measles, rubella, and erythema infectiosum (‘fifth disease’) may result in complications during pregnancy.
Measles, rubella, scarlet fever, erythema infectiosum, and roseola (‘sixth disease’) can be difficult to differentiate.
In the Netherlands, diagnosis of a patient with measles or rubella, or of more than 1 patient with erythema infectiosum within one institution, must be reported to the local health authority within 1 working day.
Exclusion from school or a day-care facility is not required for any if the diseases discussed.