Evaluate the effectiveness and safety of application of oral glucose to neonates with an increased risk of neonatal hypoglycaemia.
Neonatal hypoglycaemia is a common problem in neonates with potential permanent neurological damage. Recent studies show that the use of oral glucose to prevent and treat neonatal hypoglycaemia leads to a decrease in intravenous glucose administration and fewer clinical admissions. However, oral glucose administration is still rarely used. In 2019 Isala hospital implemented the use of oral glucose in neonates with an increased risk of neonatal hypoglycaemia.
Retrospective evaluation study in Isala hospital between November 1, 2018 and December 31. Neonates with one of the following risk factors for neonatal hypoglycaemia: prematurity (gestational age between 34+0-37+0), maternal diabetes requiring medication, asphyxia with an Apgar score <7 at five minutes and/or a birthweight <2500 grams. The frequency of glucose infusions, the lowest glucose value and the type of food were compared between neonates treated before and after the use of oral glucose.
The number of glucose infusions decreased after introduction of oral glucose (14.0% versus 5.9%, -8.1% [-14.1, -2.1]). The lowest measured glucose value (2.2 mmol/l versus 2.5 mmol/l, 0.3 mmol/l [0.15, 0.47]) was significantly higher after introduction of oral glucose. Mild complications (vomiting and food refusal) occurred in 3.8% of neonates receiving oral glucose, all without clinical consequence.
The use of oral glucose administration in neonates with an increased risk of hypoglycaemia reduces the number of intravenous glucose by half and is safe to use.
Conflict of interest and financial support: none declared.