Conflict of interest: none declared. Financial support: the authors received a grant from the Lance Armstrong Foundation and KWF Kankerbestrijding.
Patients who were treated in the past with radiotherapy or chemotherapy for testicular cancer or Hodgkin lymphoma are at risk of new malignancies and cardiovascular disease on the long run.
Two patient groups who were diagnosed in various hospitals in the Netherlands as having testicular cancer and Hodgkin lymphoma in the period 1965-1995 have survived for a mean period of almost 20 years by now.
Both patient groups have higher risks of a new malignancy or cardiovascular disease following radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy than the general population or patients treated without or with less intensive radiotherapy or chemotherapy.
As recovery of Hodgkin lymphoma is only achieved by a more intensive treatment approach than the treatment approach for testicular cancer, the risks of a new malignancy or cardiovascular disease are considerably higher among survivors of Hodgkin lymphoma than among survivors of testicular cancer.
In both patient groups the long-term risks of new malignancies and cardiovascular disease are still raised in both patient groups up to 25 years after treatment.
Because of the relatively high risks of late treatment complications, recommendations for follow-up for survivors of testicular cancer and Hodgkin lymphoma are necessary.