•Transgender people experience incongruence between the sex assigned at birth and the gender with which they identify.
•Transgender people can be treated with sex hormones and gender-affirming surgery to induce desired physical changes of the gender they identify with.
•Treatment with sex hormones is effective; it induces the desired physical characteristics and improves self-image.
•Transgender women have a higher risk of venous thromboembolism, stroke and meningioma compared to cisgender men and cisgender women. Compared to cisgender men, transgender women have a higher risk of breast cancer and transgender women > 50 years old have a higher risk of fractures.
•Transgender men have a higher risk of myocardial infarction than cisgender women. Their risk of fracture is just as high as that of cisgender women and their risk of breast cancer is lower.
•Although hormone treatment is generally considered safe for transgender people, the risk of cardiovascular disease should definitely be carefully monitored. Transgender people should also be advised to participate in population screening programmes based on the organs they have.
Conflict of interest and financial support: none declared.