To determine the contribution of perceived ethnic discrimination to depression in various ethnic minority groups in Amsterdam.
We included participants aged 18-70 years of Dutch (n = 1,744), Asian Surinamese (n = 1,126), Creole Surinamese (n = 1,770), Ghanaian (n = 1,072), and Turkish origin (n = 834) on the basis of baseline data from the HELIUS study, collected from January 2011to June 2013 in Amsterdam. Perceived discrimination was determined using the Everyday Discrimination Scale, and the severity of depressive symptoms was assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9. We used logistic regression to investigate the association between discrimination and depression, and quantified the contribution of perceived discrimination to depressive symptoms and disorder using the population attributable fraction (PAF). Results were corrected for sex, age, civil status, migration generation, level of education and employment status.
Both depressive symptoms and disorder were most common among participants of Turkish (24% and 14%, respectively) and Asian Surinamese origin (19% and 10%), and least common among participants of Dutch origin (6% and 2%). Participants from ethnic minority groups who had experienced higher rates of discrimination more often suffered depressive symptoms, with odds ratios varying from 1.66 to 2.98. The PAF of perceived discrimination to depression was 18-28% among participants of Asian Surinamese, Creole Surinamese and Turkish origin, and from 13- 16% among participants of Ghanaian origin.
Perceived discrimination contributes substantially to the prevalence of depression in ethnic minority groups in Amsterdam. Differences in the prevalence of depression in ethnic minority groups may originate partially from perceived discrimination.
Conflict of interest: none declared. Financial support: none declared. ICMJE forms provided by the authors are available online along with the full text of this article.