Here we describe the role of laboratory assessment of autoantibodies against the thyroid antigens thyroid peroxidase (TPO), thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) and thyroglobulin (TG) in the diagnosis of disorders of the thyroid. The practical use of these tests is illustrated by two case studies. This is followed by an in-depth discussion of the most recent literature, including national and international guidelines for thyroid disorders. The applicability of TPO antibodies in subclinical hypothyroidism, THSR antibodies in pregnant women with a history of Graves’ hyperthyroidism, and TG antibodies in the follow-up of differentiated thyroid carcinoma, are highlighted.
Conflict of interest and financial support: none declared.